Intro to weight loss

Intro to weight loss part 1

weight-loss

Slimming is a person's attempt to reduce his weight for the purpose of improving his health level or for the purpose of gaining agility and lightness, or by taking advantage of both benefits together. On this path, some resort to following a certain strict diet in eating, and there are many of them, both useful and not useful. Some people also take weight loss pillsBut it does not work as long as there is no real will to change the way you eat. The first factor for slimming is to follow a system in eating that the soul is comfortable with, so that a person does not feel hungry or deprived of what he craves for himself. The applicant must know that he does not expect a rapid improvement in his weight, but that he will need about 6 months to a year in order to reach the weight he wants. Moreover, the system described here does not deprive him of anything he likes, but depends on reducing the quantities he eats - especially carbohydrates and sugar . And every small abbreviation in the quantity dealt with is dispensed immediately and immediately or from time to time, as it is useful. [1]

Body and nutrition

In order to carry out its various daily activities, the body needs the calories it supplies . These calories are eaten in the form of food . Calories work primarily to maintain the body 's normal temperature , which is 37 degrees Celsius in healthy people. If it ails due to illness or physical activity, the body calms it down through perspiration. And if it decreases, he burns blood sugar to raise the temperature again to the proper level. [2]

The body consumes as much nutrients as it needs for its activity and for the organs to perform their functions such as digestion , the work of the heart, lungs , the work of the liver, kidneys , and others. The needs of an adult person (who weighs 70 kilograms ) are about 80 calories (kcal) every hour of the day to perform these organic functions , and it decreases to about 45 calories per hour of sleeping hours, as the body also performs its vital functions during sleep. Respiration, digestion, building and regeneration of cells, and others. That is, the average person who works in an office job is sufficient for him about 2000 calories per day.

And if this person exercises or engages in a work that is all movement , then he needs a greater number of calories so that the body can perform those physical works. In addition, mental work consumes about 25 calories per hour (this is equivalent to consuming a 22 - watt light bulb ) . But these calories required for thinking are within the 80 calories mentioned above.

Any more calories that a person eats in his food are stored by the body in the form of fat , as fat can store a huge amount of calories (930 calories ( kcal) per 100 grams ). Our bodies have been accustomed to storing surpluses since time immemorial, to the extent that some people now weigh 100 kilograms and are no more than 160 centimeters tall . Therefore, it is advised not to use mayonnaise and other ready-made fatty mixtures in salads, or to reduce them, as the salad will be healthy without it. 

Food also gives the body the necessary protein for muscles and the renewal of body cells . Starches and fats are the source that provides the body with heat, and helps it carry out all the vital processes that the body performs automatically, whether we are asleep or awake. Small amounts of vitamins and mineral salts help the body's systems to perform their vital functions. Deficiency in vitamins and mineral salts causes exposure to disease, poor eyesight, soft bones , and tooth decay . Vitamins and minerals are found in vegetables and fruitsFresh food of all kinds, and the process of cooking food leads to the loss of a small part of those vitamins due to exposure to heat. That is why specialists advise not to reheat food over and over again, as each time you lose part of the vitamins, and this applies to canned food, as it loses food vitamins, and fresh vegetables must be eaten next to it so that one does not suffer a deficiency in vitamins.

Likewise, the body needs mineral salts [4] such as sodium, chlorine , potassium , and calcium , which builds bones, and magnesium , which regulates the heartbeat , and manganese , which is important for the functioning of the pancreas and insulin production , and iron , which builds blood . All of these substances are found in vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fish. The lesson is to diversify the food so that the body can benefit by obtaining a sufficient amount of those substances that are necessary for its health.

The body needs vitamins and mineral salts in small quantities, and it ensures obtaining them by “diversifying” the food, including vegetables and fruits. It is better to eat or cook with vegetable oils instead of ghee. Vegetable oils such as olive oil, flaxseed oil, and corn oil are much more beneficial than margarine and margarine, as they prevent infections.

Obesity occurs for several reasons, such as:

  • Practicing bad eating habits, excessive carbohydrates and sugar, which the body converts into fat and stores.
  • Lack of movement, because movement consumes some of the food and some of the stored fat.
  • Genetic factors (the efficiency of the body's hormones in converting food into stored fats, this efficiency is inherited from the parents),
  • Pathological causes (such as a hormonal imbalance in the body or an injury to the thyroid gland),
  • Psychological reasons (eating large quantities of food when feeling upset)...etc.
  • Eating and sleeping.
  • Eat canned foods (rich in fat and sugar),
  • Eating chips and peanuts, and drinking sugary drinks (such as Coca-Cola, Fanta, and Pepsi) while watching TV.
  • Increased intake of fast food at McDonald's, Burger King, and others (rich in starches and sugars and does not contain vegetables).
  • Increase intake of chocolate, sweets and cake.

The bad eating habits described above and lack of movement are the two main causes of obesity.

Bad eating habits:

Eating large quantities of food, sweets and sugars, and eating fast food rich in fats such as chocolate, bags of “chips” potatoes, french fries, fatty meats and soft drinks that contain a lot of sugar.

Manifestations of lack of movement:

Not practicing any kind of sport (not walking, moving by car, taking the elevator...) and spending long hours in front of the TV. Office workers need movement after that, such as walking or exercising, as it adjusts weight and stimulates the intestines, kidneys, and respiratory system, as well as strengthens the arteries and veins, in addition to a useful deep sleep during the night, when the body regains its strength.

How does the body consume fat

When the body consumes more energy than it takes in from its food (and this happens especially when practicing movement such as walking, running, swimming, climbing stairs, or carrying weights (remember athletes and construction workers), muscle cells depend on the energy stored in them, such as carbohydrates and fats, to extract the energy stored in them. And the first A source on which the body relies is the stored substance glycogen , which is a complex carbohydrate that is stored in the muscles and some of which are stored in the liverAnd another part distributed in the body. The proportion of glycogen stored in the main muscles and in the liver constitutes about 65% of the amount of glycogen stored in the whole body, and the stock in the whole body of glycogen can produce energy in the body estimated at about 2000 large calories (that is, it is sufficient for one day if it is not eaten within 24 hours, theoretically). This amount of stored glycogen comes from food - especially carbohydrates and sugar - that a person eats in excess of his need, especially through the so-called carbohydrates . And part of the carbohydrates that a person eats in excess of his daily need and sugars are converted by the body into fat and stored in fat cells until needed (such as the occurrence of starvation, or fasting for long periods of time from eating or practicing violent sports for a long time, or a severe disease such as surgery, during which it is prohibited about eating).

And after the body finishes analyzing glycogen and consuming part of it (after about 30 minutes of walking, for example), it begins to analyze the stored fat and extract its energy from it. During this process, the fats in the fat cells are decomposed into glycerol and fatty acids , from which the body produces its energy. [5] From the process of decomposing glycerol and fatty acids, carbon dioxide, water , and energy are produced; Carbon dioxide is exhaled from the body during breathing. Fat is the main store the body relies on for energy storage, as fat is the most energy-dense food (900 kcal per 100g, compared to about 400 kcal for carbohydrates and proteins).

After about 30 minutes of physical activity such as walking or running, the body reduces the consumption of glycogen and sugar and resorts to consuming stored fats. The amount of fat in the body ranges from 15 kilograms in the skinny person to perhaps 90 kilograms in the obese person.

Reducing calories 

Weight gain means that the person ate a lot and took more calories than he needed, as the body stores more than he needs by converting it into fat and storing it in fat cells. If you eat a piece of chocolate weighing 25 grams every day in excess of your food consumption, you will gain 4 kilograms of weight after 365 days, and so on. Eating chocolate from time to time is healthy, but eating it daily or frequently is not healthy. After ten years, your body will have a fat store of 40 kilograms. You carry it whenever you walk here or there, a heavy load you don't need.

Reducing weight comes from reducing the amount of fat in the body, and this can only be done by consuming it and, as some say, “burning it.” Either by sport , by a lot of movement, or by determining the amount of calories taken with food, or by both together, and this is the best. And whoever wants to lose weight must choose the appropriate time first, as this diet and movement will last for a long time, and let it be a period of 4 to 6 months initially. But a person will not deprive himself of foods he likes. All there is to do - and this is what the specialists recommend - is to eat more vegetables and fruitsTo get satiety - which are low in calories - and a person may consume, for example, twice a day an orange, two peaches, an apple, a banana, or yogurt between the main meals so that he does not feel hungry, so he eats more than is appropriate. Fruits contain few calories (about 70 calories per 100 grams on average, and vegetables contain about 40 calories per 100 grams on average); Eating vegetables and fruits reduces his need for fats and carbohydrates rich in calories (fats are 930 calories per 100 grams, and starches are 400 calories per 100 grams). Also, reduce meat (400 calories per 100 grams). If a person eats three meals a day, then if he wants to lose weight, he must eat in each meal the equivalent of 350 calories, for example. So his total calories per day are about 1050 calories, and this is less than what his body needs, so the body burns part of the fat stored in his body to produce energy, and his weight decreases, and if he feels hungry, he can eat yogurt or a few nuts.

Strict weight loss regimen:

  • Limit your intake to 1,000 or 1,200 calories a day.
  • And eat whatever you like within those limits.
  • A list of vegetables and fruits that helps you calculate the number of calories you eat per day. (It is not right to lose weight for pregnant women!!)
  • Use yogurt or fruit if you feel hungry between meals, as they are low in calories (about 70 calories/100 grams).
  • It was proven by researchers at the University of Liverpool that prunes are also satiating and eating them reduces the amount of food we eat afterwards. Several pills will suffice.
  • Also, drinking a glass of water before eating works on satiety within 15-20 minutes.
  • Stop eating when you are full, it is not necessary to eat the entire plate.

Movement helps to lose weight

Just as the cart runs on gasoline and the train runs on coal , man and every living creature also consume some of what he eats to carry out his movement and activity. The following list shows us the amount of fat in grams that is consumed by the body of an ordinary person, let his weight be 70 kilograms, when performing the following movements within a period of 10 minutes:

For whoever wants to reduce his weight, he will notice a better improvement in his weight loss if he puts in his method a part related to movement, such as walking, running, swimming, climbing stairs, etc.

Weight loss aids 

  • Eating foods that give a feeling of fullness for a longer time helps to reduce daily calories without feeling hungry - that is that the food contains carbohydrates (with fiber), proteins, fats, and many vegetables; This mixture is called the glycemic index (GI). It is a measure of its effect based on the level of glucose in the blood. Foods that break down slowly have a low GI, while foods that break down faster have a high GI. [6]
  • Chewing food well, and not eating quickly or eating while reading or watching TV . Specialists have found that a person begins to feel satiated 15-20 minutes after the start of eating . Chewing food well has three benefits: First , the food mixes with saliva during chewing , which is a juice that digests food initially. Second : Chewing food well makes a person enjoy more the taste of the food he eats, so that he can know by practice the presence of pepper , cloves , garlic , allspice , ginger , or cinnamon in food or vanilla in sweets.Third : Chewing food well helps to reduce the speed of eating, as a person feels full within 15-20 minutes of eating, at a time when he has taken a small amount of food from food (i.e. fewer calories ). Good chewing also helps to mix food well with saliva, and this is the first stage of the food digestion process, before the stomach juices, then the gallbladder and pancreatic juices, which pour into the duodenum .
  • Starting food by eating salad or fruit first, then eating the main course.
  • Drinking a glass of water before eating (helps fill the stomach, giving a signal of satiety),
  • Reducing the intake of reddishes, for example:
    • Boiled potatoes contain 70 calories per 100 grams of them, while fried potatoes contain 300 calories per 100 grams due to their absorption of frying oil or fat.
    • 120 grams of boiled lamb contains about 200 calories, while roasting it in ghee raises its calorie content to about 400 calories due to its absorption and saturation with ghee.
  • Reducing sweets, as they combine starches (flour or semolina flour) , sugar and margarine (550 calories / gram).
  • And nutritionists advise when eating sweets that they do not exceed 30 grams per day.
  • Continuing to practice a certain sport, even if it is light, it is beneficial to the body and human health

Difficulties when losing weight 

Slimming does not take place within a few days, but it takes months, provided that the reduction in eating is moderate and not strict (the reasonable space is a decrease in weight at a rate of 1 and 5 kilos per month), and there must be determination and commitment. And it is difficult for a person to feel that he will be deprived of eating foods he loves. But he can maintain his weight by regulating his daily food and not exaggerating the size of meals per day. Sometimes a person is stressed and finds no refuge except in eating the food he loves. Then one continues on what he intended to control his weight.

Some people say, “Either I succeed in this, or I fail.” But it is actually possible for one to know that these setbacks are possible. Then one thinks as follows: “On the feast and on vacation, I may add a kilo or two, perhaps because of exhaustion. But in the long run, I will be able to compensate for it and reduce it again in the following days.

In fact, slimming is a difficult process for oneself and it lasts for a long time. Whoever takes this into account knows that there is a good chance of reaching his goal. And to learn self-tolerance at setbacks. And to know that lack of patience is a «poison» for slimming.

One of the famous sayings about staying away from bad health habits is, “It is easy to stop smoking, I have practiced it a hundred times.” - Mark Twain , American writer. Excessive eating is similar to that, so whoever likes to eat a lot will return to excess after a short period after reducing it, but not trying is not a solution.

Climbing the ladder 

On each rung of the ladder, a person weighing 70 kilograms consumes about 0.1 large calories . If you climb ten stairs, you consume 1 large calorie, which is equivalent to 1/4 gram of blood sugar. And you feel it when you climb 40 steps, your body consumes 1 gram of sugar. The body burns sugar by taking oxygen from the air, and thermal energy is generated in the body, which the body converts into movement energy (ascent). And when you go up you find that you breathe hard to take in more oxygen from the air.

Climbing 40 ladders, equivalent to lifting the body 8 meters upwards; During which the body consumes 1 gram of sugar. This is a high efficiency of the body in converting thermal energy into kinetic energy. For example, if you want to lift a load of 70 kilograms a distance of 8 meters using a steam machine , you need a large amount of coal or wood in order to heat water, which produces steam, and the steam operates the crane. This is because the heat generated by the combustion of coal or wood is mostly dispersed in the atmosphere, and a small part of it is used to operate the steam-powered crane. Indeed, the body's efficiency in converting thermal energy into kinetic energy is much greater than that of a steam engine.

Slimming and free radicals 

Slimming is mainly based on reducing the amount of food one eats during the day - particularly carbohydrates and sugar . For example, he gives up 30% of what he usually eats, and after a while he finds that his weight has decreased, and his physical fitness has become better. This is not only what he gains from taking it voluntarily by limiting the quantities of his food, but it is also in the interest of his body safety, as the possibility of him developing diabetes is reduced, and the work of his heart and organs such as the liver and kidneys is reduced.

On the other hand, eating less food means reducing oxidative stress on cells, which also reduces the amount of free radicals in the body, and thus less damage to cells. If the metabolism process increases - and it increases by eating a lot of food - medical observations indicate that this has an effect on shortening life. This is because an increased metabolism increases free radicals in the cells of the body, and they negatively affect the function of the liver, pancreas, kidneys, and heart. In fact, reducing the number of calories eaten by some organisms that undergo laboratory experiments show a significant prolongation of life. The supply of some experimental animals with antioxidant compounds has led to a prolongation of their average life, and this is when these substances are given to them early in their life. However, the maximum lifespan was not prolonged. [7] (See free radical theory and aging).

References _ _ _

  1. ^ Strychar I (January 2006), "Diet in the management of weight loss" , CMAJ , 174 (1): 56–63, doi : 10.1503/cmaj.045037 , PMC  1319349 , PMID  16389240 , archived from the original on 10 June 2011 .
  2. ^ Omodei, D; Fontana, L (6 June 2011), "Calorie restriction and prevention of age-associated chronic disease" , FEBS Lett , 585 (11): 1537–42, doi : 10.1016/j.febslet.2011.03.015 , PMC 3439843 , PMID 21402069. Archived from the original on December 10, 2019. Retrieved November 28, 2015 .  
  3. ^ "Cochrane for Clinicians: Are Low-Fat Diets Better than Other Weight-Reducing Diets in Achieving Long-Term Weight Loss? - American Family Physician"، مؤرشف من الأصل في 15 مايو 2008.
  4. ^ Skoog, D.A؛ West, D.M.؛ Holler, J.F.؛ Crouch, S.R. (2004)، Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry; Chapters 14, 15 and 16 (ط. 8th)، Thomson Brooks/Cole، ISBN 0-03-035523-0.
  5. ^ O'Rourke, Brian; Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A. (Oct 1, 2005), "Mitochondrial Ion Channels: Gatekeepers of Life and Death" , Physiology 20 ( 5): 303–315, doi : 10.1152/physiol.00020.2005 , ISSN 1548-9213 , PMC 2739045 , PMID 16174870. Archived from the original on September 26, 2017.   
  6. ^ Foods that reduce the feeling of hunger - Slimming Magazine Preserved copy July 04, 2017 on the Wayback Machine website .
  7. ^ B. N. Ames u. a.: Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging. In: PNAS 90, 1993, S. 7915–7922, PMID 
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